Background: Although allergic sensitization can be generated against various allergens, it is unknown how such a diversity of antigens is able to promote TH2-mediated inflammation leading to atopy. Our previous studies demonstrated that allergen-specific IgG immune complexes (ICs) and house dust mite (HDM) extract both induced dendritic cells (DCs) to drive TH2-mediated inflammation, but the mechanism by which these diverse stimuli produce similar responses is unknown.
Objective: We sought to identify the DC signaling pathways used by TH2 stimuli to promote TH2-mediated inflammation.
Methods: C57BL/6, FcγRIII(-/-), FcRγ(-/-), and ST2(-/-) mice were sensitized and challenged with HDM, and inflammation was assessed based on results of flow cytometry and histology and cytokine production. Bone marrow-derived DCs from these strains were used in signaling and adoptive transfer experiments.
Results: Our findings indicate that 2 distinct TH2 stimuli, ICs and HDM, use the FcRγ-associated receptors FcγRIII and Dectin-2, respectively, to promote TH2-mediated lung inflammation. In this study we demonstrate that both ICs and HDM induce expression of IL-33, a critical mediator in asthma pathogenesis and the differentiation of TH2 cells, in DCs. Upregulation of IL-33 in DCs is dependent on FcRγ, Toll-like receptor 4, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Exogenous IL-33 is sufficient to restore the development of TH2 responses in FcRγ-deficient mice. Finally, adoptive transfer of allergen-pulsed FcRγ(+/-) bone-marrow derived DCs restores the development of TH2-type inflammation in FcRγ-deficient mice, demonstrating the necessity of this signaling pathway in DCs for allergen-induced inflammation.
Conclusion: These data identify a mechanism whereby TH2 stimuli signal through FcRγ-associated receptors on DCs to upregulate IL-33 production and induce TH2-mediated allergic airway inflammation.
Keywords: Dendritic cells; FcRγ; T(H)2; allergic airway inflammation; house dust mite; immune complexes; lungs.
Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.