Nondystrophic myotonias are characterized by muscle stiffness triggered by voluntary movement. They are caused by mutations in either the CLCN1 gene in myotonia congenita or in the SCN4A gene in paramyotonia congenita and sodium channel myotonias. Clinical and electrophysiological phenotypes of these disorders have been well described. No concomitant mutations in both genes have been reported yet. We report five patients from three families showing myotonia with both chloride and sodium channel mutations. Their clinical and electrophysiological phenotypes did not fit with the phenotype known to be associated with the mutation initially found in SCN4A gene, which led us to screen and find an additional mutation in CLCN1 gene. Our electrophysiological and clinical observations suggest that heterozygous CLCN1 mutations can modify the clinical and electrophysiological expression of SCN4A mutation.
Keywords: CLCN1; Electromyography; Myotonia; Myotonia congenita; Nondystrophic myotonia; Paramyotonia congenita; SCN4A; Sodium channel myotonia.
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