Quantitation of Maillard reaction products in commercially available pet foods

J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Sep 3;62(35):8883-91. doi: 10.1021/jf502064h. Epub 2014 Aug 20.


During processing of pet food, the Maillard reaction occurs, which reduces the bioavailability of essential amino acids such as lysine and results in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The aim of this study was to quantitate MRPs (fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) and the cross-link lysinoalanine (LAL) in commercial pet foods. Sixty-seven extruded, canned, and pelleted dog and cat foods for growth and maintenance were analyzed using UPLC-MS. Canned pet foods contained on average the most FL, CML, and HMF (4534, 37, and 1417 mg/kg dry matter, respectively) followed by pelleted and extruded foods. Average daily intake (mg/kg body weight(0.75)) of HMF is 122 times higher for dogs and 38 times higher for cats than average intake for adult humans. As commercial pet foods are most often the only source of food for dogs and cats, future research focus should be on the bioavailability and long-term health implications of MRP consumption by dogs and cats.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animal Feed / analysis*
  • Animal Feed / economics
  • Animals
  • Cats
  • Consumer Product Safety
  • Dogs
  • Food Handling
  • Furaldehyde / analogs & derivatives
  • Furaldehyde / analysis
  • Hot Temperature
  • Lysine / analogs & derivatives
  • Lysine / analysis
  • Lysinoalanine
  • Maillard Reaction


  • Lysinoalanine
  • 5-hydroxymethylfurfural
  • N(6)-carboxymethyllysine
  • Furaldehyde
  • Lysine