Should IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-2 be considered predictive biomarkers of acute rejection in liver and kidney transplant? Results of a multicentric study

Clin Immunol. 2014 Oct;154(2):141-54. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2014.07.007. Epub 2014 Aug 1.


Acute rejection (AR) remains a major challenge in organ transplantation, and there is a need for predictive biomarkers. In the present multicenter study, we prospectively examined a series of biomarkers in liver and kidney recipients. Intracellular expression of IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-2 and IL-17 soluble production were evaluated both pre-transplantation and post-transplantation (1st and 2nd week, 1st, 2nd and 3rd month). 142 transplant patients (63 liver/79 kidney) were included in the study. Twenty-eight recipients (14 liver/14 kidney) developed AR. Pre- and post-transplantation intracellular expression of %IFN-γ(+) in CD4(+)CD69(+) and in CD8(+)CD69(+) and soluble IL17 identified liver and kidney transplant patients at high risk of AR. Pre-transplantation, %IL-2(+) in CD8(+)CD69(+) also identified kidney patients at high risk. We constructed pre- and post-transplantation risk prediction models, based on a composite panel of biomarkers, which could provide the basis for future studies and will be a useful tool for the selection and adjustment of immunosuppressive treatments.

Keywords: Acute rejection;; Bootstrap; IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-17;; Kidney transplantation;; Liver transplantation;.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers
  • Female
  • Graft Rejection / diagnosis
  • Graft Rejection / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Interferon-gamma / metabolism*
  • Interleukin-17 / metabolism*
  • Interleukin-2 / metabolism*
  • Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Liver Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Male


  • Biomarkers
  • Interleukin-17
  • Interleukin-2
  • Interferon-gamma