The growth-defense pivot: crisis management in plants mediated by LRR-RK surface receptors

Trends Biochem Sci. 2014 Oct;39(10):447-56. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2014.06.006. Epub 2014 Aug 1.


Plants must adapt to their environment and require mechanisms for sensing their surroundings and responding appropriately. An expanded family of more than 200 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) transduces fluctuating and often contradictory signals from the environment into changes in nuclear gene expression. Two LRR-RKs, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), a steroid receptor, and FLAGELLIN SENSITIVE 2 (FLS2), an innate immune receptor that recognizes bacterial flagellin, act cooperatively to partition necessary growth-defense trade-offs. BRI1 and FLS2 share common signaling components and slightly different activation mechanisms. BRI1 and FLS2 are paradigms for understanding the signaling mechanisms of LRR-containing receptors in plants.

Keywords: LRR-RKs; cell surface signaling; crosstalk; innate immunity; plant growth; trade-offs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / physiology
  • Models, Molecular
  • Plant Development
  • Protein Kinases / genetics
  • Protein Kinases / physiology*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Protein Kinases
  • FLS2 protein, Arabidopsis
  • BRI1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases