Background: Recent studies that have assessed the comparative effectiveness between coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that have included analyses of temporal trends in mortality have noted mixed results.
Methods: We conducted an observational longitudinal cohort study of all adults with ESRD undergoing CABG or PCI within Kaiser Permanente Northern California. The primary predictor, index period of revascularization, was categorized into 3 periods: 1996-1999 (reference), 2000-2003, and 2004-2008, with the primary outcome being 3-year all-cause mortality. A multivariable Cox regression model with the assumption of independent censoring was used to determine the adjusted relative risk of the primary predictor.
Results: Among 1015 ESRD patients, 3-year mortality showed no significant change in the 2000-2003 period but was lower during the 2004-2008 period with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.88; trend test p = 0.01). No change in 30-day mortality was noted. Further adjustment for receipt of medications at baseline and after revascularization did not materially affect risk estimates. No significant interactions were observed between the type of revascularization (CABG or PCI) and the period of the index revascularization.
Conclusions: Among a high-risk cohort of patients with ESRD and coronary artery disease within Kaiser Permanente Northern California who were referred for coronary revascularization by either CABG or PCI, the relative risk of mortality in the 2004-2008 period decreased by 34% compared with the 1996-1999 period, with the benefit primarily in the decrease in late mortality.