Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent effects of socioeconomic and psychological social determinants of health on diabetes knowledge, self-care, diabetes outcomes and quality of life.
Research design and methods: Cross-sectional sample of 615 adults from two adult primary care clinics in the southeastern United States. Primary outcome variables were diabetes knowledge, self-care behaviors (diet, exercise, medication adherence, blood sugar testing, foot care) and diabetes outcomes (HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein, blood pressure, physical component summary score of SF12 quality of life, mental component summary score of SF12 quality of life). Covariates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, health literacy and comorbidity. Linear regression models were used to assess independent associations controlling for covariates.
Results: In final adjusted models, significant associations for HbA1c included education [β = -0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.36 to -0.08], income (β = -0.66, CI: -1.30 to -0.16), self-efficacy (β = -0.12, CI: -0.15 to -0.08) and diabetes distress (β = 0.43, CI: 0.14 to 0.72). Significant associations for self-care included medication adherence with diabetes distress (β = -0.58, CI: -0.91 to -0.25) and perceived stress (β = -0.12, CI: -0.18 to -0.05) and exercise with depression (β = -0.06, CI: -0.10 to -0.01) and self-efficacy (β = 0.06, CI: 0.01 to 0.10). Significant associations for quality of life included depression (β = -0.08, CI: -0.12 to -0.03), serious psychological distress (β = -0.09, CI: -0.12 to -0.05), social support (β = 0.01, CI: 0.001 to 0.02) and perceived stress (β = -0.12, CI: -0.19 to -0.06).
Conclusions: Social determinants of health were significantly associated with diabetes self-care and outcomes with socioeconomic factors being most often associated with diabetes outcomes and psychological factors, specifically self-efficacy and perceived stress being most often associated with self-care and quality of life.
Keywords: Diabetes; Psychological; Self-care; Social determinants; Socioeconomic.
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