Anti-inflammatory properties of a dried fermentate in vitro and in vivo

J Med Food. 2015 Mar;18(3):378-84. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2013.0158. Epub 2014 Aug 8.


The aim of this study was to document anti-inflammatory properties of a dried fermentate derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EpiCor(®)), hereafter referred to as dried fermentate in vitro using cell-based bioassays, and in vivo using a skin irritation model in healthy humans. In vitro testing involved parallel assessment of primary human polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and migration toward the inflammatory mediator Leukotriene B4. In vivo evaluation used a single-blind placebo-controlled design, where dermal histamine-induced inflammation was used as a model for the complex intercellular signals involved in the initiation, escalation, and resolution of the inflammatory response. Microvascular blood perfusion was evaluated using noninvasive laser Doppler probes applied to the inner forearms of 12 healthy human subjects, where parallel sites were treated with either dried fermentate or saline (placebo). Subjective scores of dermal irritation were also collected. Treatment of PMN cells in vitro resulted in reduced ROS formation and migratory activity toward Leukotriene B4. Clinical results demonstrated significantly reduced microvascular inflammatory responses to histamine-induced skin inflammation, and significantly reduced subjective scores of irritation at the inflamed sites treated with dried fermentate compared with the sites treated with placebo (P<.05). Treatment of inflammatory cells in vitro with dried fermentate resulted in reduced inflammatory responses. This was confirmed in vivo, suggesting that the dried fermentate facilitates the resolution of inflammatory responses. The effects using a topical skin model suggest that similar events may happen when the dried fermentate is introduced across mucosal membranes after consumption.

Keywords: blood perfusion; histamine; laser Doppler; leukotriene B4; migration; polymorphonuclear; reactive oxygen species.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use
  • Biological Products / pharmacology*
  • Biological Products / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Fermentation*
  • Histamine
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Inflammation / chemically induced
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / prevention & control*
  • Leukotriene B4 / metabolism
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae*
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Skin / drug effects*
  • Skin / pathology
  • Young Adult


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Biological Products
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Leukotriene B4
  • Histamine