Twenty year experience of the oral rabies vaccine SAG2 in wildlife: a global review

Vet Res. 2014 Aug 10;45(1):77. doi: 10.1186/s13567-014-0077-8.


The SAG2 vaccine (RABIGEN® SAG2) is a modified live attenuated rabies virus vaccine, selected from the SAD Bern strain in a two-step process of amino acid mutation using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The strain is genetically stable and does not spread in vivo or induce a persistent infection. Its absence of residual pathogenicity was extensively demonstrated in multiple target and non target species (such as wild carnivores and rodent species), including non-human primates. The efficacy of SAG2 baits was demonstrated according to the EU requirements for the red fox and raccoon dog. The use of safe and potent rabies vaccines such as SAG2 largely contributed to the elimination of rabies in Estonia, France, Italy and Switzerland. Importantly, these countries were declared free of rabies after few years of oral vaccination campaigns with SAG2 baits distributed with an appropriate strategy. The excellent tolerance of the SAG2 vaccine has been confirmed in the field since its first use in 1993. No safety issues have been reported, and in particular no vaccine-induced rabies cases were diagnosed, after the distribution of more than 20 million SAG2 baits in Europe.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Disease Eradication
  • Europe
  • Foxes*
  • Rabies / prevention & control
  • Rabies / veterinary*
  • Rabies Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Rabies Vaccines / genetics
  • Rabies Vaccines / standards
  • Rabies virus / physiology*
  • Raccoon Dogs*
  • Vaccination / veterinary
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / genetics


  • Rabies Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Attenuated