Effects of urokinase (UK) therapy in patients with moderate to advanced degrees of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) were examined. Twenty-seven patients were treated by "two weeks" UK administration, 14 patients were treated by "consecutive" UK administration and 16 patients were treated by antiplatelet drugs. There were marked improvements in urinary protein concentration, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen after UK therapy, especially in patients treated by "consecutive" UK administration which was performed by "single shot" UK injection. Clinical prognosis was favorable in patients treated by UK administration compared with those given antiplatelet treatment. It was concluded that "consecutive" UK administration might be useful for treatment of IgAN with moderate to advanced renal injuries.