Perceptions of parental bonding in freebase cocaine users versus non-illicit drug users

Indian J Med Res. 2014 Jun;139(6):835-40.


Background & objectives: Evidence has suggested that parenting styles have peculiar characteristics in families with drug-related issues. This study was undertaken to investigate the perception of crack (smoke cocaine) users and non-users about parental bonding quality regarding care and control in Brazil.

Methods: A total of 198 hospitalized crack users and 104 users of any non-illicit drug were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).

Results: Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that crack users were more likely (ORadj=9.68; 95% CI: 2.82, 33.20) to perceive neglectful mothers, as well as more likely (ORadj=4.71, 95% CI: 2.17, 10.22) to perceive controlling and affectionless fathers in comparison with non-illicit drug users who were more likely to perceive optimal parenting.

Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicate that the perception of neglectful mothers and affectionless controlling fathers may be associated with the tendency of the children to be less resilient when facing stressful events, leading them to a greater risk to use crack.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Brazil
  • Cocaine*
  • Drug Users / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Maternal Behavior / psychology*
  • Object Attachment*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Parent-Child Relations*
  • Paternal Behavior / psychology*


  • Cocaine