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Review
, 20 (29), 9898-911

Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori Infection: Meeting the Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance

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Review

Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori Infection: Meeting the Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance

Vasilios Papastergiou et al. World J Gastroenterol.

Abstract

Treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is paramount for the management of prevalent gastrointestinal disorders including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Due to the wide increase in prevalence of H. pylori resistance to antibiotics, clarithromycin-based triple therapies are not any more suitable for unconditional empiric use, and should not be recommended, unless local resistance to this antibiotic is low (< 20%). Alternative strategies have been proposed to overcome the issue of increasing clarithromycin resistance, and some of them are already implemented in clinical practice. These comprise: (1) adoption of novel, more effective, empirical treatments: bismuth quadruple, sequential, non-bismuth quadruple (concomitant), dual-concomitant (hybrid), and levofloxacin-based regimens, the latter mainly designated as second-line/rescue options; (2) perspectives for a susceptibility-guided (tailored) therapeutic approach based on culture-free molecular testing methods; and (3) adjunct use of probiotics to improve eradication rates. The present article is aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of current and emerging strategies in the treatment of H. pylori infection, focusing on the challenge of antimicrobial resistance.

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; Bismuth-quadruple; Concomitant; Helicobacter pylori; Sequential.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Continental rates of Helicobacter pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin.

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