Influence of California-style black ripe olive processing on the formation of acrylamide

J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Aug 27;62(34):8716-21. doi: 10.1021/jf5022829. Epub 2014 Aug 15.


Methods used in processing California-style black ripe olives generate acrylamide. California-style black ripe olives contain higher levels of acrylamide (409.67 ± 42.60-511.91 ± 34.08 μg kg(-1)) as compared to California-style green ripe olives (44.02 ± 3.55-105.79 ± 22.01 μg kg(-1)), Greek olives (<1.42 μg kg(-1)), and Spanish olives (not detected), indicating that the higher temperatures used to sterilize the California-style green ripe and black ripe olives are required for acrylamide formation. Preprocessing brine storage influenced the formation of acrylamide in a time-dependent manner. Acrylamide increased during the first 30 days of storage. Longer brine storage times (>30 days) result in lower acrylamide levels in the finished product. The presence of calcium ions in the preprocessing brining solution results in higher levels of acrylamide in finished products. Air oxidation during lye processing and the neutralization of olives prior to sterilization significantly increase the formation of acrylamide in the finished products. Conversely, lye-processing decreases the levels of acrylamide in the final product. These results indicate that specific steps in the California-style black ripe olive processing may be manipulated to mitigate the formation of acrylamide in finished products.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acrylamide / analysis*
  • California
  • Food Handling / instrumentation
  • Food Handling / methods*
  • Food Storage
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Olea / chemistry*


  • Acrylamide