Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds inhibit UV-radiation-induced immune suppression in mice: detection and analysis of molecular and cellular targets

Photochem Photobiol. 2015 Jan-Feb;91(1):156-62. doi: 10.1111/php.12330. Epub 2014 Sep 8.


Ultraviolet (UV)-radiation-induced immunosuppression has been linked with the risk of skin carcinogenesis. Approximately, 2 million new cases of skin cancers, including melanoma and nonmelanoma, diagnosed each year in the USA and therefore have a tremendous bad impact on public health. Dietary phytochemicals are promising options for the development of effective strategy for the prevention of photodamaging effects of UV radiation including the risk of skin cancer. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are such phytochemicals. Dietary administration of GSPs with AIN76A control diet significantly inhibits UV-induced skin tumor development as well as suppression of immune system. UV-induced suppression of immune system is commonly determined using contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model which is a prototype of T-cell-mediated immune response. We present evidence that inhibition of UV-induced suppression of immune system by GSPs is mediated through: (i) the alterations in immunoregulatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12, (ii) DNA repair, (iii) stimulation of effector T cells and (iv) DNA repair-dependent functional activation of dendritic cells in mouse model. These information have important implications for the use of GSPs as a dietary supplement in chemoprevention of UV-induced immunosuppression as well as photocarcinogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • DNA Damage
  • DNA Repair
  • Grape Seed Extract / isolation & purification
  • Grape Seed Extract / pharmacology*
  • Immune System / drug effects*
  • Immune System / radiation effects*
  • Mice
  • Proanthocyanidins / isolation & purification
  • Proanthocyanidins / pharmacology*
  • Ultraviolet Rays*


  • Cytokines
  • Grape Seed Extract
  • Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins
  • Proanthocyanidins