Evaluation of apically extruded debris associated with several Ni-Ti systems

Int Endod J. 2015 Jul;48(7):701-4. doi: 10.1111/iej.12369. Epub 2014 Sep 16.


Aim: To evaluate the apical extrusion of debris associated with several root canal preparation systems in vitro.

Methodology: Forty-five extracted human mandibular premolars with single canals and similar lengths were used. The root canals were instrumented using ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Twisted File (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) or WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Debris extruded apically during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The Eppendorf tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70 °C for 5 days. The Eppendorf tubes were weighed to obtain the final weight of the Eppendorf tubes plus extruded debris. Three consecutive weights were obtained for each tube. The groups were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance on Ranks and Tukey's test.

Results: The ProTaper Next group produced the highest mean extrusion value whilst WaveOne produced less debris compared with all the other instruments (P > 0.05). There was a significant difference between the ProTaper Next and WaveOne group (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Apically extruded debris was associated with all instrumentation techniques. The WaveOne system extruded less debris compared with the Twisted File and ProTaper Next.

Keywords: ProTaper Next; Twisted File; WaveOne; apical extrusion.

MeSH terms

  • Bicuspid / surgery
  • Dental Instruments*
  • Dental Pulp Cavity / surgery*
  • Equipment Design
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Materials Testing
  • Nickel
  • Root Canal Preparation / instrumentation*
  • Titanium
  • Tooth Apex / surgery


  • titanium nickelide
  • Nickel
  • Titanium