Cardiovascular risk markers until 12 mo of age in infants fed a formula supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membranes

Pediatr Res. 2014 Oct;76(4):394-400. doi: 10.1038/pr.2014.110. Epub 2014 Aug 12.


Background: Some of the health advantages of breast-fed as compared to formula-fed infants have been suggested to be due to metabolic programming effects resulting from early nutrition.

Methods: In a prospective double-blinded randomized trial, 160 infants <2 mo of age were randomized to experimental formula (EF) with added milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) or standard formula (SF) until 6 mo of age. A breast-fed reference (BFR) group consisted of 80 infants. Measurements were made at inclusion and at 4, 6, and 12 mo of age.

Results: During the intervention, the EF group had higher total serum cholesterol concentration than the SF group, reaching the level of the BFR group. The EF group had a low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein ratio not significantly different from the SF group but lower than the BFR group.

Conclusion: Supplementation of infant formula with MFGM modified the fat composition of the formula and narrowed the gap between breast-fed and formula-fed infants with regard to serum lipid status at 12 mo.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / blood
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Blood Pressure
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cattle
  • Glycolipids / administration & dosage*
  • Glycoproteins / administration & dosage*
  • Homocysteine / blood
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Food*
  • Leptin / blood
  • Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex / blood
  • Lipid Droplets
  • Lipids / blood
  • Risk Factors


  • Adiponectin
  • Biomarkers
  • Glycolipids
  • Glycoproteins
  • Leptin
  • Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
  • Lipids
  • milk fat globule
  • Homocysteine