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Review
. 2014 Aug 11;6(8):3202-13.
doi: 10.3390/nu6083202.

Cocoa Bioactive Compounds: Significance and Potential for the Maintenance of Skin Health

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Free PMC article
Review

Cocoa Bioactive Compounds: Significance and Potential for the Maintenance of Skin Health

Giovanni Scapagnini et al. Nutrients. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Cocoa has a rich history in human use. Skin is prone to the development of several diseases, and the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of aged skin are still poorly understood. However, a growing body of evidence from clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of cocoa-derived phytochemicals as an effective approach for skin protection. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms of the beneficial actions of cocoa phytochemicals remain to be elucidated, this review will provide an overview of the current literature emphasizing potential cytoprotective pathways modulated by cocoa and its polyphenolic components. Moreover, we will summarize in vivo studies showing that bioactive compounds of cocoa may have a positive impact on skin health.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Manufacturing processes of cocoa beans.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Schematic presentation of the Nrf2 pathway. When oxidants, such as ROS, RNS and dietary phytochemical compounds react with redox reactive cysteines in Keap1, Nrf2 will be released from Keap1, allowing Nrf2 to be translocated into the nucleus. In the nucleus, Nrf2 dimerizes with Maf protein and bind to ARE, which is located in the promoter of the phase II and antioxidative genes, triggering the transcription of ARE-regulated genes. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2); Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1); musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma (Maf); antioxidant response element (ARE); NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1); glutathione S-transferase (GST); glutathione peroxidase (GPX); heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1).

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