Interleukin-22 alleviates metabolic disorders and restores mucosal immunity in diabetes

Nature. 2014 Oct 9;514(7521):237-41. doi: 10.1038/nature13564. Epub 2014 Aug 6.

Abstract

The connection between an altered gut microbiota and metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease is well established. Defects in preserving the integrity of the mucosal barriers can result in systemic endotoxaemia that contributes to chronic low-grade inflammation, which further promotes the development of metabolic syndrome. Interleukin (IL)-22 exerts essential roles in eliciting antimicrobial immunity and maintaining mucosal barrier integrity within the intestine. Here we investigate the connection between IL-22 and metabolic disorders. We find that the induction of IL-22 from innate lymphoid cells and CD4(+) T cells is impaired in obese mice under various immune challenges, especially in the colon during infection with Citrobacter rodentium. While innate lymphoid cell populations are largely intact in obese mice, the upregulation of IL-23, a cytokine upstream of IL-22, is compromised during the infection. Consequently, these mice are susceptible to C. rodentium infection, and both exogenous IL-22 and IL-23 are able to restore the mucosal host defence. Importantly, we further unveil unexpected functions of IL-22 in regulating metabolism. Mice deficient in IL-22 receptor and fed with high-fat diet are prone to developing metabolic disorders. Strikingly, administration of exogenous IL-22 in genetically obese leptin-receptor-deficient (db/db) mice and mice fed with high-fat diet reverses many of the metabolic symptoms, including hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. IL-22 shows diverse metabolic benefits, as it improves insulin sensitivity, preserves gut mucosal barrier and endocrine functions, decreases endotoxaemia and chronic inflammation, and regulates lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissues. In summary, we identify the IL-22 pathway as a novel target for therapeutic intervention in metabolic diseases.

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue, White / drug effects
  • Adipose Tissue, White / metabolism
  • Animals
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Chronic Disease
  • Citrobacter rodentium / drug effects
  • Citrobacter rodentium / immunology
  • Citrobacter rodentium / physiology
  • Colon / drug effects
  • Colon / immunology
  • Colon / microbiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / immunology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / pathology
  • Diet, High-Fat
  • Female
  • Hyperglycemia / diet therapy
  • Hyperglycemia / drug therapy
  • Hyperglycemia / metabolism
  • Immunity, Mucosal* / drug effects
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Interleukin-23 / immunology
  • Interleukin-23 / metabolism
  • Interleukin-23 / pharmacology
  • Interleukins / immunology*
  • Interleukins / metabolism*
  • Interleukins / pharmacology
  • Interleukins / therapeutic use
  • Lipid Metabolism / drug effects
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Metabolic Diseases / diet therapy
  • Metabolic Diseases / drug therapy
  • Metabolic Diseases / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Obese
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Receptors, Interleukin / deficiency
  • Receptors, Interleukin / metabolism
  • Receptors, Leptin / deficiency
  • Receptors, Leptin / metabolism

Substances

  • Insulin
  • Interleukin-23
  • Interleukins
  • Receptors, Interleukin
  • Receptors, Leptin
  • interleukin-22 receptor
  • interleukin-22