Functional balance between the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 HA D222 variants

PLoS One. 2014 Aug 13;9(8):e104009. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104009. eCollection 2014.


D222G/N substitutions in A(H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutinin may be associated with increased binding of viruses causing low respiratory tract infections and human pathogenesis. We assessed the impact of such substitutions on the balance between hemagglutinin binding and neuraminidase cleavage, viral growth and in vivo virulence.Seven viruses with differing polymorphisms at codon 222 (2 with D, 3 G, 1 N and 1 E) were isolated from patients and characterized with regards hemagglutinin binding affinity (Kd) to α-2,6 sialic acid (SAα-2,6) and SAα-2,3 and neuraminidase enzymatic properties (Km, Ki and Vmax). The hemagglutination assay was used to quantitatively assess the balance between hemagglutinin binding and neuraminidase cleavage. Viral growth properties were compared in vitro in MDCK-SIAT1 cells and in vivo in BALB/c mice. Compared with D222 variants, the binding affinity of G222 variants was greater for SAα-2,3 and lower for SAα-2,6, whereas that of both E222 and N222 variants was greater for both SAα-2,3 and SAα-2,6. Mean neuraminidase activity of D222 variants (16.0 nmol/h/10(6)) was higher than that of G222 (1.7 nmol/h/10(6) viruses) and E/N222 variants (4.4 nmol/h/10(6) viruses). The hemagglutination assay demonstrated a deviation from functional balance by E222 and N222 variants that displayed strong hemagglutinin binding but weak neuraminidase activity. This deviation impaired viral growth in MDCK-SIAT1 cells but not infectivity in mice. All strains but one exhibited low infectious dose in mice (MID50) and replicated to high titers in the lung; this D222 strain exhibited a ten-fold higher MID50 and replicated to low titers. Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase balance status had a greater impact on viral replication than hemagglutinin affinity strength, at least in vitro, thus emphasizing the importance of an optimal balance for influenza virus fitness. The mouse model is effective in assessing binding to SAα-2,3 but cannot differentiate SAα-2,3- from SAα-2,6- preference, nor estimate the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase balance in A(H1N1)pdm09 strains.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Animals
  • Dogs
  • Female
  • Genetic Variation
  • Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus / chemistry
  • Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus / genetics
  • Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / genetics*
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / metabolism
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / pathogenicity
  • Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neuraminidase / metabolism
  • Neuraminidase / physiology*
  • Sequence Analysis, Protein
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA
  • Virus Replication / genetics


  • Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus
  • Neuraminidase

Associated data

  • GENBANK/JF429396
  • GENBANK/JF429401
  • GENBANK/JF429402
  • GENBANK/JF429403
  • GENBANK/KC800977
  • GENBANK/KC800978
  • GENBANK/KC800979
  • GENBANK/KC800980
  • GENBANK/KC800981
  • GENBANK/KC800982
  • GENBANK/KF897769
  • GENBANK/KF897770
  • GENBANK/KF897771
  • GENBANK/KF897772
  • GENBANK/KF897773
  • GENBANK/KF897774
  • GENBANK/KF897775
  • GENBANK/KF897776
  • GENBANK/KF897777
  • GENBANK/KF897778
  • GENBANK/KF897779
  • GENBANK/KF897780
  • GENBANK/KF897781
  • GENBANK/KF897782
  • GENBANK/KF897783
  • GENBANK/KF897784
  • GENBANK/KF897785
  • GENBANK/KF897786
  • GENBANK/KF897787
  • GENBANK/KF897788
  • GENBANK/KF897789
  • GENBANK/KF897790
  • GENBANK/KF897791
  • GENBANK/KF897792
  • GENBANK/KF897793
  • GENBANK/KF897794
  • GENBANK/KF897795
  • GENBANK/KF897796
  • GENBANK/KF897797
  • GENBANK/KF897798
  • GENBANK/KF897799
  • GENBANK/KF897800
  • GENBANK/KF897801
  • GENBANK/KF897802
  • GENBANK/KF897803
  • GENBANK/KF897804
  • GENBANK/KF897805
  • GENBANK/KF897806
  • GENBANK/KF897807
  • GENBANK/KF897808
  • GENBANK/KF897809
  • GENBANK/KF897810
  • GENBANK/KF897811
  • GENBANK/KF897812
  • GENBANK/KF897813

Grant support

This work was supported by the Institut de Microbiologie et Madalies Infectieuses and the National Influenza Center. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.