Frequently asked questions about in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence: practical issues

Photosynth Res. 2014 Nov;122(2):121-58. doi: 10.1007/s11120-014-0024-6. Epub 2014 Aug 15.


The aim of this educational review is to provide practical information on the hardware, methodology, and the hands on application of chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence technology. We present the paper in a question and answer format like frequently asked questions. Although nearly all information on the application of Chl a fluorescence can be found in the literature, it is not always easily accessible. This paper is primarily aimed at scientists who have some experience with the application of Chl a fluorescence but are still in the process of discovering what it all means and how it can be used. Topics discussed are (among other things) the kind of information that can be obtained using different fluorescence techniques, the interpretation of Chl a fluorescence signals, specific applications of these techniques, and practical advice on different subjects, such as on the length of dark adaptation before measurement of the Chl a fluorescence transient. The paper also provides the physiological background for some of the applied procedures. It also serves as a source of reference for experienced scientists.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chlorophyll / chemistry*
  • Chlorophyll / metabolism
  • Chlorophyll A
  • Fluorescence*
  • Light
  • Photosynthesis / physiology*


  • Chlorophyll
  • Chlorophyll A