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Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Voriconazole: A Case Report of Multiple Drug Interactions in a Patient With an Increased CYP2C19 Activity

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Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Voriconazole: A Case Report of Multiple Drug Interactions in a Patient With an Increased CYP2C19 Activity

Yassine Bouatou et al. AIDS Res Ther.

Abstract

Background: Voriconazole is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 and CYP 3A4. Drug-drug interactions and genetic polymorphisms modulate their activities.

Case presentation: A 35-year old African female patient with resistant HIV and a cerebral mass of unknown origin was treated with voriconazole for a suspicion of disseminated Aspergillosis infection. Voriconazole trough concentrations (C0) were within target range while the patient was under esomeprazole, a CYP2C19 inhibitor. Phenotyping showed decreased CYP2C19 activity, whereas genotyping showed a variant allele associated with increased enzyme activity. The patient was switched to ranitidine because of the introduction of atazanavir. CYP3A4 inhibition by atazanavir combined with uninhibited CYP2C19 activity resulted in subtherapeutic voriconazole C0. The reintroduction of esomeprazole allowed restoring voriconazole C0 back to target range.

Conclusion: The integration of drug-drug interactions and pharmacogenetics data is crucial to interpret drug concentrations correctly, thus preventing suboptimal exposure to voriconazole.

Keywords: CYP; Drug interaction; Individualization; Pharmacogenetics; Therapeutic drug monitoring; antifungal.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Time course of patient treatment and therapeutic drug monitoring results. Time course of (A) voriconazole i. v. dosage administration, (B) comedication with esomeprazole or ranitidine and (C) associated antiretroviral therapy. Voriconazole plasma trough concentrations. qd: once a day; b.i.d.: Twice a day.

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