Background: Identification of predictors of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in adolescence could provide intervention targets and improve understanding of the cause.
Study design: Register-based nested case-control study.
Setting & participants: A cohort of all Swedish male residents born from 1952 through 1956 who attended mandatory military conscription examinations in late adolescence was used to identify 534 cases and 5,127 controls matched by birth year, county, and vital status.
Predictor: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), proteinuria, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI) in late adolescence.
Outcomes: ESRD (defined here as dialysis therapy, kidney transplantation, surgical procedures creating long-term access for dialysis therapy, or chronic kidney disease stage 5) from 1985 through 2009.
Measurements: Physical working capacity and cognitive function score in late adolescence. Head of household's occupation and household crowding measured as person-per-room ratio from the 1960 census when participants were children.
Results: Proteinuria is associated notably with future ESRD, with an adjusted OR of 7.72 (95% CI, 3.94-15.14; P<0.001) for trace or positive dipstick findings. ESR has a dose-dependent association with ESRD with an adjusted OR of 2.07 (95%CI, 1.14-3.75; P=0.02) for ESR >15mm/h. Hypertension is associated strongly with future ESRD with an OR of 3.97 (95%CI, 2.08-7.59; P<0.001) for grade 2 hypertension and higher. Elevated BMI is associated statistically significantly with increased ESRD risk with an OR of 3.53 (95%CI, 2.04-6.11; P<0.001) for BMI ≥30 compared with 18.5-<25kg/m(2).
Limitations: The study was limited to men, with no initial estimation of glomerular filtration rate, and information on smoking was unavailable.
Conclusions: ESR, proteinuria, BMI, and blood pressure in late adolescence are independent predictors of ESRD in middle-aged men. This highlights the long natural history and importance of adopting a life-course approach when considering the cause of chronic kidney disease.
Keywords: End-stage renal disease (ESRD); adolescence; body mass index (BMI); disease trajectory; erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); etiology; hypertension; inflammation; kidney disease progression; proteinuria; risk factor.
Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.