The microbiome is a new center of attention for studies on the pathogenesis of human disease by focusing on the alterations of all microorganisms living in a particular site or system of human body, referred as microbiota. Evidence suggests that microbiota could contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of chronic diseases, including cancers, both locally and remotely. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed and/or proven for the microbiota's role in tumorigenesis, such as via induction of chronic inflammation, genotoxicity, bacterium-mediated cell proliferation, and activation of procarcinogens. Emerging data suggest that indigenous microbiota in the urinary tract may play an important role in the tumorigenesis of urothelial carcinoma, similar to other tumors. Future studies are needed to adequately define the microbiota composition and correlate its change with urothelial carcinoma.
Keywords: Microbiome; bladder cancer; microbiota; urothelial carcinoma.