Associations between rice, noodle, and bread intake and sleep quality in Japanese men and women

PLoS One. 2014 Aug 15;9(8):e105198. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105198. eCollection 2014.


Background: Previous studies have shown that a diet with a high-glycemic index is associated with good sleep quality. Therefore, we investigated the association of sleep quality with the intake of 3 common starchy foods with different glycemic indexes-rice, bread, and noodles-as well as the dietary glycemic index in a Japanese population.

Methods: The participants were 1,848 men and women between 20 and 60 years of age. Rice, bread, and noodle consumption was evaluated using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Sleep quality was evaluated by using the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and a global score >5.5 was considered to indicate poor sleep.

Results: Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for poor sleep across the quintiles of rice consumption were 1.00 (reference), 0.68 (0.49-0.93), 0.61 (0.43-0.85), 0.59 (0.42-0.85), and 0.54 (0.37-0.81) (p for trend = 0.015); those for the quintiles of noodle consumption were 1.00 (reference), 1.25 (0.90-1.74), 1.05 (0.75-1.47), 1.31 (0.94-1.82), and 1.82 (1.31-2.51) (p for trend = 0.002). Bread intake was not associated with sleep quality. A higher dietary glycemic index was significantly associated with a lower risk of poor sleep (p for trend = 0.020).

Conclusion: A high dietary glycemic index and high rice consumption are significantly associated with good sleep in Japanese men and women, whereas bread intake is not associated with sleep quality and noodle consumption is associated with poor sleep. The different associations of these starchy foods with sleep quality might be attributable to the different glycemic index of each food.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bread*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Energy Intake*
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Food Preferences
  • Glycemic Index
  • Glycemic Load
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Middle Aged
  • Oryza*
  • Sleep*
  • Young Adult


  • Dietary Carbohydrates

Grants and funding

This research was supported by a Grant-in-Aid from the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, Health and Labor Sciences research grants, Japan (H18-Junkankitou[Seishuu]- Ippan-012, H19-Junkankitou [Seishuu]-Ippan-012, H19-Junkankitou [Seishuu]-Ippan- 021, H20-Junkankitou [Seishuu]-Ippan-013, H22-Junkankitou [Seishuu]-Ippan-005, H23-Junkankitou [Seishuu]-Ippan-005) and the Japan Arteriosclerosis Prevention Fund. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis.