NAD homeostasis in the bacterial response to DNA/RNA damage

DNA Repair (Amst). 2014 Nov;23:17-26. doi: 10.1016/j.dnarep.2014.07.014. Epub 2014 Aug 13.


In mammals, NAD represents a nodal point for metabolic regulation, and its availability is critical to genome stability. Several NAD-consuming enzymes are induced in various stress conditions and the consequent NAD decline is generally accompanied by the activation of NAD biosynthetic pathways to guarantee NAD homeostasis. In the bacterial world a similar scenario has only recently begun to surface. Here we review the current knowledge on the involvement of NAD homeostasis in bacterial stress response mechanisms. In particular, we focus on the participation of both NAD-consuming enzymes (DNA ligase, mono(ADP-ribosyl) transferase, sirtuins, and RNA 2'-phosphotransferase) and NAD biosynthetic enzymes (both de novo, and recycling enzymes) in the response to DNA/RNA damage. As further supporting evidence for such a link, a genomic context analysis is presented showing several conserved associations between NAD homeostasis and stress responsive genes.

Keywords: Bacterial stress response; DNA/RNA repair; Genome context analysis; NAD homeostasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • ADP Ribose Transferases / metabolism
  • Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose / metabolism
  • Bacteria / genetics*
  • Bacteria / metabolism*
  • DNA Damage*
  • DNA Ligases / metabolism
  • DNA, Bacterial / metabolism
  • Group III Histone Deacetylases / metabolism
  • Homeostasis / genetics
  • NAD / biosynthesis
  • NAD / genetics
  • NAD / metabolism*
  • Niacinamide / metabolism
  • RNA, Bacterial / metabolism


  • DNA, Bacterial
  • RNA, Bacterial
  • NAD
  • Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose
  • Niacinamide
  • ADP Ribose Transferases
  • Group III Histone Deacetylases
  • DNA Ligases
  • DNA ligase (NAD)