In mammals, NAD represents a nodal point for metabolic regulation, and its availability is critical to genome stability. Several NAD-consuming enzymes are induced in various stress conditions and the consequent NAD decline is generally accompanied by the activation of NAD biosynthetic pathways to guarantee NAD homeostasis. In the bacterial world a similar scenario has only recently begun to surface. Here we review the current knowledge on the involvement of NAD homeostasis in bacterial stress response mechanisms. In particular, we focus on the participation of both NAD-consuming enzymes (DNA ligase, mono(ADP-ribosyl) transferase, sirtuins, and RNA 2'-phosphotransferase) and NAD biosynthetic enzymes (both de novo, and recycling enzymes) in the response to DNA/RNA damage. As further supporting evidence for such a link, a genomic context analysis is presented showing several conserved associations between NAD homeostasis and stress responsive genes.
Keywords: Bacterial stress response; DNA/RNA repair; Genome context analysis; NAD homeostasis.
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