Production of functional inclusion bodies in endotoxin-free Escherichia coli

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014 Nov;98(22):9229-38. doi: 10.1007/s00253-014-6008-9. Epub 2014 Aug 17.


Escherichia coli is the workhorse for gene cloning and production of soluble recombinant proteins in both biotechnological and biomedical industries. The bacterium is also a good producer of several classes of protein-based self-assembling materials such as inclusion bodies (IBs). Apart from being a relatively pure source of protein for in vitro refolding, IBs are under exploration as functional, protein-releasing materials in regenerative medicine and protein replacement therapies. Endotoxin removal is a critical step for downstream applications of therapeutic proteins. The same holds true for IBs as they are often highly contaminated with cell-wall components of the host cells. Here, we have investigated the production of IBs in a recently developed endotoxin-free E. coli strain. The characterization of IBs revealed this mutant as a very useful cell factory for the production of functional endotoxin-free IBs that are suitable for the use at biological interfaces without inducing endotoxic responses in human immune cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biological Products / metabolism*
  • Biotechnology / methods
  • Endotoxins / deficiency*
  • Escherichia coli / metabolism*
  • Inclusion Bodies / metabolism*
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Technology, Pharmaceutical / methods*


  • Biological Products
  • Endotoxins
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • endotoxin, Escherichia coli