Phenotypic spectrum associated with PTCHD1 deletions and truncating mutations includes intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder

Clin Genet. 2015 Sep;88(3):224-33. doi: 10.1111/cge.12482. Epub 2014 Oct 14.


Studies of genomic copy number variants (CNVs) have identified genes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) such as NRXN1, SHANK2, SHANK3 and PTCHD1. Deletions have been reported in PTCHD1 however there has been little information available regarding the clinical presentation of these individuals. Herein we present 23 individuals with PTCHD1 deletions or truncating mutations with detailed phenotypic descriptions. The results suggest that individuals with disruption of the PTCHD1 coding region may have subtle dysmorphic features including a long face, prominent forehead, puffy eyelids and a thin upper lip. They do not have a consistent pattern of associated congenital anomalies or growth abnormalities. They have mild to moderate global developmental delay, variable degrees of ID, and many have prominent behavioral issues. Over 40% of subjects have ASD or ASD-like behaviors. The only consistent neurological findings in our cohort are orofacial hypotonia and mild motor incoordination. Our findings suggest that hemizygous PTCHD1 loss of function causes an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong propensity to autistic behaviors. Detailed neuropsychological studies are required to better define the cognitive and behavioral phenotype.

Keywords: PTCHD1; X-linked; autism spectrum disorder; intellectual disability; phenotype.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder / diagnosis*
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder / genetics*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Exons
  • Facies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Intellectual Disability / diagnosis*
  • Intellectual Disability / genetics*
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Mutation*
  • Phenotype*
  • Sequence Deletion*
  • Young Adult


  • Membrane Proteins
  • PTCHD1 protein, human