[Extrapulmonary tuberculosis]

Rev Pneumol Clin. 2015 Apr-Jun;71(2-3):83-92. doi: 10.1016/j.pneumo.2014.04.001. Epub 2014 Aug 15.
[Article in French]


Each year, there are more than eight million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.3 million deaths. There is a renewed interest in extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis as its relative frequency increases. Among extrapulmonary organs, pleura and lymph nodes are the most common. Their diagnosis is often difficult and is based on clinical, radiological, bacteriological and histological findings. Extrapulmonary lesions are paucibacillary and samplings, in most cases, difficult to obtain, so diagnosis is often simply presumptive. Nucleic acid amplification tests, which are fast and specific, have greatly facilitated the diagnosis of some forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. However, their sensitivity is poor and a negative test does not eliminate the diagnosis. Treatment is the same as for pulmonary forms, but its duration is nine to 12 months for central nervous system and for bone tuberculosis. Corticosteroids are indicated in meningeal and pericardial localizations. Complementary surgery is used for certain complicated forms.

Keywords: Abdomen; Appareil uro-génital; Bone; Central nervous system; Ganglion; Node; Os; Pleura; Plèvre; Système nerveux central; Tuberculose; Tuberculosis; Uro-genital tract.

Publication types

  • English Abstract
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Global Health
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Pericarditis, Tuberculous / diagnosis
  • Pericarditis, Tuberculous / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Tuberculosis / diagnosis*
  • Tuberculosis / epidemiology*
  • Tuberculosis / mortality
  • Tuberculosis / therapy
  • Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis, Meningeal / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Meningeal / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis, Pleural / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Pleural / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis, Spinal / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Spinal / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis, Urogenital / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Urogenital / epidemiology