D. melanogaster was subjected to selection for two different traits of oviposition behaviour in relation to oocyte retention in ovaries, i.e. the aptitude to stop laying in response to an unsuitable substrate, and the occurrence of a dusk peak in the circadian oviposition rhythm. Selection for high and low lines was rapidly successful for both characters. Each selected line was also tested for the non-selected trait. Results showed a genetic correlation between the two behaviours, suggesting a common mechanism for the control of oviposition, independently of the origin and the duration of oocyte retention.