Lung transplantation (LTx) is a treatment option for infants and children with untreatable and otherwise fatal pulmonary diseases. To date, over 1,800 lung transplants have been performed, most frequently in children over the age of five years. The most common indications for transplantation in children overall are cystic fibrosis (CF) and idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (PH). The surfactant protein deficiencies, other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), and congenital heart disease are important indications among young children and infants. Re-transplantation is an option for selected recipients with chronic allograft rejection. Overall survival following pediatric LTx is similar to that encountered in adult patients, with recent registry data indicating a median survival of 4.9 years. Other outcomes such as the incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and the presence of key post-transplant co-morbid conditions are also similar to the experience in adult lung transplant recipients.
Keywords: Lung transplantation (LTx); indications; infants; pediatrics; survival.