Implementation of a CKD checklist for primary care providers

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014 Sep 5;9(9):1526-35. doi: 10.2215/CJN.01660214. Epub 2014 Aug 18.


Background and objectives: CKD is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and financial burden. Practice guidelines outlining CKD management exist, but there is limited application of these guidelines. Interventions to improve CKD guideline adherence have been limited. This study evaluated a new CKD checklist (a tool outlining management guidelines for CKD) to determine whether implementation in an academic primary care clinic improved adherence to guidelines.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: During a 1-year period (August 2012-August 2013), a prospective study was conducted among 13 primary care providers (PCPs), four of whom were assigned to use a CKD checklist incorporated into the electronic medical record during visits with patients with CKD stages 1-4. All providers received education regarding CKD guidelines. The intervention and control groups consisted of 105 and 263 patients, respectively. Adherence to CKD management guidelines was measured.

Results: A random-effects logistic regression analysis was performed to account for intra-group correlation by PCP assignment and adjusted for age and CKD stage. CKD care improved among patients whose PCPs were assigned to the checklist intervention compared with controls. Patients in the CKD checklist group were more likely than controls to have appropriate annual laboratory testing for albuminuria (odds ratio [OR], 7.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.6 to 17.2), phosphate (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 8.3), and parathyroid hormone (OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 4.8 to 13.7) (P<0.001 in all cases). Patients in the CKD checklist group had higher rates of achieving a hemoglobin A1c target<7% (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5.1), use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0 to 4.2), documentation of avoidance of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR, 41.7; 95% CI, 17.8 to 100.0), and vaccination for annual influenza (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.0) and pneumococcus (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.6 to 8.6) (P<0.001 in all cases).

Conclusions: Implementation of a CKD checklist significantly improved adherence to CKD management guidelines and delivery of CKD care.

Keywords: checklist; chronic kidney disease; guidelines; primary care.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Checklist*
  • Female
  • Guideline Adherence / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Primary Health Care*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / therapy*