Transforming growth factor β--at the centre of systemic sclerosis

Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2014 Dec;10(12):706-19. doi: 10.1038/nrrheum.2014.137. Epub 2014 Aug 19.


Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) has long been implicated in fibrotic diseases, including the multisystem fibrotic disease systemic sclerosis (SSc). Expression of TGF-β-regulated genes in fibrotic skin and lungs of patients with SSc correlates with disease activity, which points to this cytokine as the central mediator of pathogenesis. Patients with SSc often develop pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a particularly lethal complication caused by vascular dysfunction. Several genetic diseases with vascular features related to SSc, such as familial PAH and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, are caused by mutations in the TGF-β-sensing ALK-1 signalling pathway. These observations suggest that increased TGF-β signalling causes both vascular and fibrotic features of SSc. The question of how latent TGF-β becomes activated in local SSc tissues is, therefore, central to the understanding of SSc. Both TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 can be activated by integrins αvβ6 and αvβ8, whose upregulation in bronchial epithelial cells can activate TGF-β in SSc lungs. Other αv integrins, thrombospondin-1 or altered TGF-β sequestration by matrix proteins might be important in other target tissues. How the immune system triggers this process remains unclear, although links between inflammation and TGF-β activation are emerging. Together, these observations provide an increasingly secure framework for understanding TGF-β in SSc pathogenesis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Myofibroblasts
  • Scleroderma, Systemic / etiology*
  • Scleroderma, Systemic / immunology
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology*


  • Transforming Growth Factor beta