Grape seed extract improves epithelial structure and suppresses inflammation in ileum of IL-10-deficient mice

Food Funct. 2014 Oct;5(10):2558-63. doi: 10.1039/c4fo00451e. Epub 2014 Aug 19.


Defect in intestinal epithelial structure is a critical etiological factor of several intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), which contains a mixture of polyphenols, on ileal mucosal structure and inflammation in interleukin (IL)-10-deficient mice, a common model for studying inflammatory bowel disease. Wild-type and IL-10-deficient mice were fed GSE at 0 or 1% (based on dry feed weight) for 16 weeks. GSE supplementation decreased crypt depth and increased (P < 0.05) the ratio of villus/crypt length in the terminal ileum. Consistently, the dietary GSE decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation and enhanced (P < 0.05) differentiation of epithelial cells. These changes in gut epithelium were associated with the suppression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cell (NF-κB) signaling. Furthermore, compared with WT mice, IL-10 deletion promoted beclin-1 and AMPK expression, both of which were decreased to normal by GSE supplementation. These changes were associated with alterations in epithelial barrier function as indicated by reduced pore forming claudin-2 protein expression and increased barrier forming claudin-1 protein expression in the ileum of GSE supplemented mice. In summary, our data indicates that GSE exerts protective effects to the ileal epithelial structure in IL-10-deficient mice possibly through the suppression of inflammatory response.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism
  • Beclin-1
  • Cell Differentiation / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Epithelial Cells / drug effects
  • Epithelial Cells / metabolism
  • Female
  • Gene Deletion
  • Grape Seed Extract / pharmacology*
  • Ileum / drug effects*
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / drug therapy
  • Interleukin-10 / deficiency*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • NF-kappa B / genetics
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Polyphenols / pharmacology
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Vitis / chemistry


  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Beclin-1
  • Becn1 protein, mouse
  • Grape Seed Extract
  • NF-kappa B
  • Polyphenols
  • Interleukin-10