Previous studies [Summercorn et al. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 8834-8838; Klarlung & Czech (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 15872-15875] have indicated that Balb/c 3T3 cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated with insulin show increased casein kinase II activity within minutes, implicating this serine/threonine kinase as an early step in an insulin signaling pathway. We recently reported the isolation of a cDNA encoding an alpha subunit of human casein kinase II [Meisner et al. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 4072-4076] as an initial step toward examining the regulation of this enzyme. We now describe a HepG2 cell casein kinase II beta subunit cDNA of 2.57 kb containing 96 bases of 5' untranslated sequence, 645 bases of open reading frame, and 1832 bases of 3' untranslated sequence with two polyadenylation consensus signal sequences and two poly(A) stretches. The open reading frame of the human beta subunit cDNA was 77% and 87% identical with the Drosophila sequence at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, and 99% identical with the bovine amino acid sequence. RNA analysis of HepG2 cell RNA utilizing HepG2 beta subunit cDNA fragments as probes revealed one major band migrating at 1.2 kb and two minor bands migrating at 3.0 and 4.2 kb. Results from DNA analysis of HepG2 genomic DNA, consistent with results utilizing Drosophila genomic DNA, suggest the presence of a single gene for the beta subunit of casein kinase II.