Multimodality imaging of common and uncommon peritoneal diseases: a review for radiologists

Abdom Imaging. 2015 Feb;40(2):436-56. doi: 10.1007/s00261-014-0224-8.


Peritoneal disease can be caused by a wide spectrum of pathologies. While peritoneal disease is usually caused by primary or secondary malignancies, benign diseases can occur and mimic malignancies. This article begins with an overview of peritoneal embryology and anatomy followed by a detailed description of the multimodality imaging appearance of peritoneal diseases. Common diseases include peritoneal carcinomatosis, pseudomyxoma peritonei, lymphomatosis, sarcomatosis, and tuberculous peritonitis. The uncommon diseases which cause peritoneal disease include desmoid fibromatosis, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, malignant mesothelioma, well-differentiated mesothelioma, multicystic mesothelioma, papillary serous carcinoma, leiomyomatosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, inflammatory pseudotumor and amyloidosis. This manuscript will help the radiologist become familiar with the different peritoneal spaces, pathways of spread, multimodality imaging appearance and differential diagnoses of peritoneal diseases in order to report the essential information for surgeons and oncologists to plan treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Contrast Media
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Humans
  • Image Enhancement
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging*
  • Multimodal Imaging / methods*
  • Peritoneal Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Peritoneum / diagnostic imaging
  • Peritoneum / pathology
  • Positron-Emission Tomography*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed*


  • Contrast Media