MacABCsm, an ABC-type Tripartite Efflux Pump of Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Involved in Drug Resistance, Oxidative and Envelope Stress Tolerances and Biofilm Formation

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Dec;69(12):3221-6. doi: 10.1093/jac/dku317. Epub 2014 Aug 19.


Objectives: To characterize a five gene cluster, macRS-macABCsm, in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

Methods: The presence of macABCsm operon was verified by RT-PCR. The substrate spectrum of the MacABCsm efflux pump was investigated by mutant construction and susceptibility testing. The physiological role of MacABCsm was assessed by comparing the growth of wild-type and macABCsm mutant under different stresses. To examine the regulatory role of the two-component regulatory system (TCS) macRS in the expression of macABCsm operon, mutant construction, quantitative RT-PCR and susceptibility testing were employed.

Results: macAsm, macBsm and macCsm genes formed a three-membered operon. The MacABCsm efflux pump extruded macrolides, aminoglycosides and polymyxins and contributed to oxidative and envelope stress tolerances and biofilm formation. Inactivation of macRS TCS hardly influenced the expression of macABCsm operon and the antimicrobial susceptibility.

Conclusions: The MacABCsm pump has physiological roles in protecting S. maltophilia from the attack of oxidative and envelope stresses and in biofilm formation, which may be the reason why it can be constitutively expressed in the absence of antibiotics and is highly conserved in S. maltophilia isolates isolated from different environmental niches. However, the constitutive expression of macABCsm contributes to the intrinsic resistance of S. maltophilia to macrolides, aminoglycosides and polymyxins.

Keywords: antibiotics resistance; bacteria; physiological role.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / genetics*
  • ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism*
  • Aminoglycosides / pharmacology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Biofilms / growth & development*
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial*
  • Gene Deletion
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Macrolides / pharmacology
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Multigene Family
  • Operon
  • Polymyxins / pharmacology
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Stenotrophomonas maltophilia / drug effects*
  • Stenotrophomonas maltophilia / growth & development
  • Stenotrophomonas maltophilia / physiology*
  • Stress, Physiological*
  • Substrate Specificity


  • ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Macrolides
  • Polymyxins