Influence of HMB supplementation and resistance training on cytokine responses to resistance exercise

J Am Coll Nutr. 2014;33(4):247-55. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2014.911669. Epub 2014 Aug 20.


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a multinutritional supplement including amino acids, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), and carbohydrates on cytokine responses to resistance exercise and training.

Methods: Seventeen healthy, college-aged men were randomly assigned to a Muscle Armor™ (MA; Abbott Nutrition, Columbus, OH) or placebo supplement group and 12 weeks of resistance training. An acute resistance exercise protocol was administered at 0, 6, and 12 weeks of training. Venous blood samples at pre-, immediately post-, and 30-minutes postexercise were analyzed via bead multiplex immunoassay for 17 cytokines.

Results: After 12 weeks of training, the MA group exhibited decreased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-10. IL-1β differed by group at various times. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β) changed over the 12-week training period but did not differ by group.

Conclusions: Twelve weeks of resistance training alters the cytokine response to acute resistance exercise, and supplementation with HMB and amino acids appears to further augment this result.

Keywords: immune function; muscle damage; myokine; nutrition; strength training.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids / administration & dosage
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weight
  • Chemokine CCL2 / blood
  • Chemokine CCL4 / blood
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Interferon-gamma / blood
  • Interleukin-10 / blood
  • Interleukin-13 / blood
  • Interleukin-1beta / blood
  • Interleukin-6 / blood
  • Interleukin-8 / blood
  • Male
  • Micronutrients / administration & dosage
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Resistance Training*
  • Valerates / administration & dosage*
  • Young Adult


  • Amino Acids
  • CCL2 protein, human
  • CCL4 protein, human
  • CXCL8 protein, human
  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Chemokine CCL4
  • Cytokines
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • IFNG protein, human
  • IL10 protein, human
  • IL1B protein, human
  • IL6 protein, human
  • Interleukin-13
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Interleukin-6
  • Interleukin-8
  • Micronutrients
  • Valerates
  • Interleukin-10
  • beta-hydroxyisovaleric acid
  • Interferon-gamma