Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality that is in part due to the development of vascular calcification. Vascular calcification is an active, highly regulated process that shares many similarities with normal bone formation. New discoveries related to extracellular vesicles, microRNAs, and calciprotein particles continue to reveal the mechanisms that are involved in the initiation and progression of vascular calcification in CKD. Further innovations in these fields are critical for the development of biomarkers and therapeutic options for patients with CKD and ESRD.
Keywords: calciprotein particles; chronic kidney disease; microRNA; vascular calcification; vesicles.
Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.