Female sterilization failure: Review over a decade and its clinicopathological correlation

Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2014 Jul;4(2):81-5. doi: 10.4103/2229-516X.136781.

Abstract

Objectives: The primary objective of the following study is to determine the demographic patterns of women presenting as sterilization-failure and secondary is to evaluate possible etiological factors for failure and lay standard guidelines to reduce failure rate.

Materials and methods: The present study is retrospective study conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Government Medical College and Hospital-based on the case records maintained in our institution over a decade (April 2002-March 2012).

Results: Over a decade, 140 cases of sterilization-failure with longest interval of 20 years have been documented out of 80 (57.14%) cases were of minilaparotomy (minilap), 53 (37.86%) laparoscopic tubal ligation and 5 (3.57%) were lower segment cesarean section. In 84 cases (60%) sterilization were performed in Primary Health Centre (PHC). Only 58 (41.43%) patients reported failure in 1(st) trimester (<12 weeks). 14 cases (10%) were of ectopic pregnancy. There were 25 cases (17.86%) of spontaneous recanalization. In 27 cases (19.29%) failure was due to improper surgical procedure and rest 54 (38.57%) have conceived due to tuboperitoneal fistula.

Conclusion: Female sterilization even though considered as permanent method of contraception, recanalization is possible even 20 years after procedure. Maximum cases of failure were with minilap and those were performed at PHC. The most common cause of failure was tuboperitoneal fistula. Ectopic pregnancies were seen in 10% of cases. Proper counseling of patient is must. There is a need to stick to standards of sterilization procedure to prevent future failure.

Keywords: Laparoscopic tubal ligation; minilaparotomy; spontaneous tubal recanalization; sterilization-failure; tubal ligation; tubal sterilization.