Noncontact imaging of burn depth and extent in a porcine model using spatial frequency domain imaging

J Biomed Opt. 2014 Aug;19(8):086019. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.19.8.086019.


The standard of care for clinical assessment of burn severity and extent lacks a quantitative measurement. In this work, spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) was used to measure 48 thermal burns of graded severity (superficial partial, deep partial, and full thickness) in a porcine model. Functional (total hemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation) and structural parameters (tissue scattering) derived from the SFDI measurements were monitored over 72 h for each burn type and compared to gold standard histological measurements of burn depth. Tissue oxygen saturation (stO₂) and total hemoglobin (ctHbT) differentiated superficial partial thickness burns from more severe burn types after 2 and 72 h, respectively (p < 0.01), but were unable to differentiate deep partial from full thickness wounds in the first 72 h. Tissue scattering parameters separated superficial burns from all burn types immediately after injury (p < 0.01), and separated all three burn types from each other after 24 h (p < 0.01). Tissue scattering parameters also showed a strong negative correlation to histological burn depth as measured by vimentin immunostain (r² > 0.89). These results show promise for the use of SFDI-derived tissue scattering as a correlation to burn depth and the potential to assess burn depth via a combination of SFDI functional and structural parameters.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Burns / classification
  • Burns / diagnosis*
  • Burns / metabolism*
  • Hemoglobins / metabolism*
  • Molecular Imaging / methods*
  • Oxygen / metabolism*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared / methods*
  • Swine
  • Trauma Severity Indices*


  • Hemoglobins
  • Oxygen