Choline concentrations are lower in postnatal plasma of preterm infants than in cord plasma

Eur J Nutr. 2015 Aug;54(5):733-41. doi: 10.1007/s00394-014-0751-7. Epub 2014 Aug 23.


Background: Choline is essential to human development, particularly of the brain in the form of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and acetylcholine, for bile and lipoprotein formation, and as a methyl group donator. Choline is actively transported into the fetus, and maternal supply correlates with cognitive outcome. Interruption of placental supply may therefore impair choline homeostasis in preterm infants.

Objective: Determination of postnatal plasma concentrations of choline and its derivatives betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) in preterm infants compared to cord and maternal blood matched for postmenstrual age (PMA).

Design: We collected plasma of very low-birth-weight infants undergoing neonatal intensive care (n = 162), cord plasma of term and preterm infants (n = 176, 24-42-week PMA), serum of parturients (n = 36), and plasma of healthy premenopausal women (n = 40). Target metabolites were analyzed with tandem mass spectrometry and reported as median (25th/75th percentiles).

Results: Cord plasma choline concentration was 41.4 (31.8-51.2) µmol/L and inversely correlated with PMA. In term but not in preterm infants, cord plasma choline was lower in girls than in boys. Prenatal glucocorticoid treatment did not affect choline levels in cord plasma, whereas betaine was decreased and DMG increased. In parturients and non-pregnant women, choline concentrations were 14.1 (10.3-16.9) and 8.8 (5.7-11.2) µmol/L, respectively, whereas betaine was lowest in parturients. After delivery, preterm infant plasma choline decreased to 20.8 (16.0-27.6) µmol/L within 48 h. Betaine and DMG correlated with plasma choline in all groups.

Conclusions: In preterm infants, plasma choline decreases to 50 % of cord plasma concentrations, reflecting choline undernourishment and postnatal metabolic adaptation, and potentially contributing to impaired outcome.

Trial registration: NCT02027584.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Betaine / administration & dosage
  • Choline / blood*
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Enteral Nutrition
  • Female
  • Fetal Blood / chemistry*
  • Fetus / metabolism
  • Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage
  • Humans
  • Infant, Premature / blood*
  • Infant, Very Low Birth Weight / blood
  • Intensive Care Units, Neonatal
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parenteral Nutrition
  • Pregnancy
  • Premenopause / blood
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sarcosine / administration & dosage
  • Sarcosine / analogs & derivatives
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Young Adult


  • Glucocorticoids
  • Betaine
  • dimethylglycine
  • Choline
  • Sarcosine

Associated data