Hereditary inclusion-body myopathies

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Apr;1852(4):644-50. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.08.007. Epub 2014 Aug 19.


The term hereditary inclusion-body myopathies (HIBMs) defines a group of rare muscle disorders with autosomal recessive or dominant inheritance and presence of muscle fibers with rimmed vacuoles and collection of cytoplasmic or nuclear 15-21 nm diameter tubulofilaments as revealed by muscle biopsy. The most common form of HIBM is due to mutations of the GNE gene that codes for a rate-limiting enzyme in the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway. This results in abnormal sialylation of glycoproteins that possibly leads to muscle fiber degeneration. Mutations of the valosin containing protein are instead responsible for hereditary inclusion-body myopathy with Paget's disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD), with these three phenotypic features having a variable penetrance. IBMPFD probably represents a disorder of abnormal cellular trafficking of proteins and maturation of the autophagosome. HIBM with congenital joint contractures and external ophthalmoplegia is due to mutations of the Myosin Heavy Chain IIa gene that exerts a pathogenic effect through interference with filament assembly or functional defects in ATPase activity. This review illustrates the clinical and pathologic characteristics of HIBMs and the main clues available to date concerning the possible pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives of these disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis.

Keywords: GNE myopathy; HIBM; IBMPFD; Myosin Heavy Chain; VCP.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Contracture / congenital*
  • Contracture / enzymology
  • Contracture / genetics
  • Contracture / pathology
  • Frontotemporal Dementia* / enzymology
  • Frontotemporal Dementia* / genetics
  • Frontotemporal Dementia* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Muscle Fibers, Skeletal* / enzymology
  • Muscle Fibers, Skeletal* / pathology
  • Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle* / enzymology
  • Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle* / genetics
  • Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle* / pathology
  • Mutation
  • Myosin Heavy Chains / genetics
  • Myosin Heavy Chains / metabolism
  • Myositis, Inclusion Body / congenital*
  • Myositis, Inclusion Body / enzymology
  • Myositis, Inclusion Body / genetics
  • Myositis, Inclusion Body / pathology
  • N-Acetylneuraminic Acid / genetics
  • N-Acetylneuraminic Acid / metabolism
  • Ophthalmoplegia* / enzymology
  • Ophthalmoplegia* / genetics
  • Ophthalmoplegia* / pathology
  • Osteitis Deformans* / enzymology
  • Osteitis Deformans* / genetics
  • Osteitis Deformans* / pathology
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational / genetics


  • Myosin Heavy Chains
  • N-Acetylneuraminic Acid

Supplementary concepts

  • Inclusion Body Myopathy With Early-Onset Paget Disease And Frontotemporal Dementia
  • Inclusion body myopathy autosomal recessive
  • Inclusion body myopathy, autosomal dominant