The isopenicillin N synthase (pcbC) and acyl-CoA:6-APA acyltransferase (penDE) genes of Penicillium chrysogenum were located in a 19.5-kb DNA fragment that had been previously cloned in phage vector EMBL3. This 19.5-kb DNA fragment was mapped with several endonucleases, and the pcbC and penDE genes were located by hybridization with probes corresponding to internal fragments of each gene. A low penicillin producing strain (P. chrysogenum Wis 54-1255) and two high producing strains (AS-P-78 and P2) showed hybridizing fragments of identical sizes in their chromosomes. Dot-blot hybridization of serial dilutions of the total DNA of the three strains showed that the intensity of all the hybridizing bands was much higher in strains AS-P-78 and P2 than in Wis 54-1255. Hybridization of total DNA digestions with probes corresponding to fragments which mapped upstream or downstream of the pcbC-penDE region revealed that a fragment of at least 35 kb DNA has been amplified 9 to 14 fold in the high penicillin producing strains. The amplified region did not include the previously cloned pyrG gene that encodes OMP-decarboxylase, an enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis.