Background: In the whole genome sequencing, genetic map provides an essential framework for accurate and efficient genome assembly and validation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a high-density genetic map using RAD-Seq (Restriction-site Associated DNA Sequencing) genotyping-by-sequencing (RAD-Seq GBS) and Illumina GoldenGate assays, and to examine the alignment of the current map with the kabuli chickpea genome assembly.
Results: Genic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) totaling 51,632 SNPs were identified by 454 transcriptome sequencing of Cicer arietinum and Cicer reticulatum genotypes. Subsequently, an Illumina GoldenGate assay for 1,536 SNPs was developed. A total of 1,519 SNPs were successfully assayed across 92 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), of which 761 SNPs were polymorphic between the two parents. In addition, the next generation sequencing (NGS)-based GBS was applied to the same population generating 29,464 high quality SNPs. These SNPs were clustered into 626 recombination bins based on common segregation patterns. Data from the two approaches were used for the construction of a genetic map using a population derived from an intraspecific cross. The map consisted of 1,336 SNPs including 604 RAD recombination bins and 732 SNPs from Illumina GoldenGate assay. The map covered 653 cM of the chickpea genome with an average distance between adjacent markers of 0.5 cM. To date, this is the most extensive genetic map of chickpea using an intraspecific population. The alignment of the map with the CDC Frontier genome assembly revealed an overall conserved marker order; however, a few local inconsistencies within the Cicer arietinum pseudochromosome 1 (Ca1), Ca5 and Ca8 were detected. The map enabled the alignment of 215 unplaced scaffolds from the CDC Frontier draft genome assembly. The alignment also revealed varying degrees of recombination rates and hotspots across the chickpea genome.
Conclusions: A high-density genetic map using RAD-Seq GBS and Illumina GoldenGate assay was developed and aligned with the existing kabuli chickpea draft genome sequence. The analysis revealed an overall conserved marker order, although some localized inversions between draft genome assembly and the genetic map were detected. The current analysis provides an insight of the recombination rates and hotspots across the chickpea genome.