The influence of the CIVIQ dimensions on quality of life of patients with primary superficial venous incompetence

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2014 Oct;48(4):452-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2014.07.006. Epub 2014 Aug 21.


Objectives: To get to know the influence of the four domains of the Chronic Lower Limb Venous Insufficiency Questionnaire (CIVIQ) on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with primary superficial venous incompetence, and their behaviour in relation to age, gender, occupation, body mass index (BMI), and also with respect to the clinical and anatomical classes of the CEAP.

Material and methods: The sample was composed of 468 patients with primary superficial venous reflux (135 male and 333 female) who answered 100% of the questions in the Short Form-12 (SF12) and CIVIQ questionnaires. After a clinical and duplex examination, the patients were categorized as C0-6, Ep, As, Ap or As,p and Pr according to the CEAP classification. The relationships between CIVIQ domains and gender, age, occupation, BMI, and the clinical and anatomical classes of the CEAP classification were analyzed.

Results: Men reported better QoL than women (33.2 vs. 46.3) and this was also true for each of the CIVIQ's domains (p < .00). Pain (50.6) and physical restriction (45.3) were the dimensions with a greater influence on QoL, whereas social (41.7) and psychological (38.1) dimensions had a lesser influence. Patients aged between 45 and 64, household activities, and patients with C2-3 clinical classes were the patient groups with the worst scores in all the CIVIQ dimensions and those where significant differences were found. The BMI and anatomical distribution of the reflux had no influence on the QoL.

Conclusions: Pain and physical restriction were the CIVIQ domains with greater influence on the QoL of patients with primary superficial venous reflux. Age increase (up to 64 years), female gender, household activities, and C2-3 CEAP clinical class were the main factors associated with the worst QoL perception.

Keywords: Age; CEAP clinical class; CIVIQ dimensions; Gender; Occupation; Quality of life of primary superficial venous reflux.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lower Extremity / blood supply
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Morbidity
  • Quality of Life*
  • Sex Distribution
  • Sex Factors
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
  • Venous Insufficiency / diagnosis
  • Venous Insufficiency / epidemiology
  • Venous Insufficiency / psychology*
  • Young Adult