CT and MR imaging diagnosis and staging of hepatocellular carcinoma: part I. Development, growth, and spread: key pathologic and imaging aspects

Radiology. 2014 Sep;272(3):635-54. doi: 10.1148/radiol.14132361.


Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging play critical roles in the diagnosis and staging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The first article of this two-part review discusses key concepts of HCC development, growth, and spread, emphasizing those features with imaging correlates and hence most relevant to radiologists; state-of-the-art CT and MR imaging technique with extracellular and hepatobiliary contrast agents; and the imaging appearance of precursor nodules that eventually may transform into overt HCC.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnostic imaging*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Liver / diagnostic imaging
  • Liver / pathology
  • Liver Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods