Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis and IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis is associated with extrapancreatic organ failure, malignancy, and mortality in a prospective UK cohort

Am J Gastroenterol. 2014 Oct;109(10):1675-1683. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2014.223. Epub 2014 Aug 26.


Objectives: Type I autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-related SC) are now recognized as components of a multisystem IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). We aimed to define the clinical course and long-term outcomes in patients with AIP/IgG4-SC recruited from two large UK tertiary referral centers.

Methods: Data were collected from 115 patients identified between 2004 and 2013, and all were followed up prospectively from diagnosis for a median of 33 months (range 1-107), and evaluated for response to therapy, the development of multiorgan involvement, and malignancy. Comparisons were made with national UK statistics.

Results: Although there was an initial response to steroids in 97%, relapse occurred in 50% of patients. IgG4-SC was an important predictor of relapse (P<0.01). Malignancy occurred in 11% shortly before or after the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, including three hepatopancreaticobiliary cancers. The risk of any cancer at diagnosis or during follow-up when compared with matched national statistics was increased (odds ratio=2.25, CI=1.12-3.94, P=0.02). Organ dysfunction occurred within the pancreas, liver, kidney, lung, and brain. Mortality occurred in 10% of patients during follow-up. The risk of death was increased compared with matched national statistics (odds ratio=2.07, CI=1.07-3.55, P=0.02).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that AIP and IgG4-SC are associated with significant morbidity and mortality owing to extrapancreatic organ failure and malignancy. Detailed clinical evaluation for evidence of organ dysfunction and associated malignancy is required both at first presentation and during long-term follow-up.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Autoimmune Diseases / complications*
  • Autoimmune Diseases / mortality
  • Autoimmune Diseases / therapy
  • Brain Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cholangitis, Sclerosing / complications*
  • Cholangitis, Sclerosing / mortality
  • Cholangitis, Sclerosing / therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G*
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology
  • Liver Diseases / epidemiology
  • Lung Diseases / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pancreatitis / complications*
  • Pancreatitis / mortality
  • Pancreatitis / therapy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • United Kingdom
  • Young Adult


  • Immunoglobulin G