Profiles of orofacial dysfunction in different diagnostic groups using the Nordic Orofacial Test (NOT-S)--a review

Acta Odontol Scand. 2014 Nov;72(8):578-84. doi: 10.3109/00016357.2014.942874. Epub 2014 Aug 26.


Objective: The Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S) was developed as a comprehensive method to assess orofacial function. Results from the screening protocol have been presented in 11 international publications to date. This study reviewed these publications in order to compile NOT-S screening data and create profiles of orofacial dysfunction that characterize various age groups and disorders.

Materials and methods: NOT-S results of nine reports meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Seven of these studies not only provided data on the mean and range of total NOT-S scores, but also on the most common domains of orofacial dysfunction (highest rate of individuals with dysfunction scores), allowing the construction of orofacial dysfunction profiles based on the prevalence of dysfunction in each domain of NOT-S.

Results: The compiled data comprised 669 individuals, which included healthy control subjects (n = 333) and various patient groups (n = 336). All studies reported differences between individuals with diagnosed disorders and healthy control subjects. The NOT-S data could measure treatment effects and provided dysfunction profiles characterizing the patterns of orofacial dysfunction in various diagnoses.

Conclusions: This review corroborates previous results that the NOT-S differentiates well between patients and healthy controls and can also show changes in individuals after treatment. NOT-S could be used as a standard instrument to assess orofacial dysfunction, evaluate the outcomes of oral habilitation and rehabilitation and improve comparability in clinical practice and research.

Keywords: chewing; oral disability; rare disorders; screening; speech.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Deglutition Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Facial Expression
  • Humans
  • Mass Screening / methods*
  • Mastication / physiology*
  • Masticatory Muscles / physiology
  • Respiration
  • Sensation / physiology
  • Sialorrhea / diagnosis
  • Speech Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Xerostomia / diagnosis