Inhalation/Exhalation ratio modulates the effect of slow breathing on heart rate variability and relaxation

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2014 Dec;39(3-4):171-80. doi: 10.1007/s10484-014-9253-x.


Slow breathing is widely applied to improve symptoms of hyperarousal, but it is unknown whether its beneficial effects relate to the reduction in respiration rate per se, or, to a lower inhalation/exhalation (i/e) ratio. The present study examined the effects of four ventilatory patterns on heart rate variability and self-reported dimensions of relaxation. Thirty participants were instructed to breathe at 6 or 12 breaths/min, and with an i/e ratio of 0.42 or 2.33. Participants reported increased relaxation, stress reduction, mindfulness and positive energy when breathing with the low compared to the high i/e ratio. A lower compared to a higher respiration rate was associated only with an increased score on positive energy. A low i/e ratio was also associated with more power in the high frequency component of heart rate variability, but only for the slow breathing pattern. Our results show that i/e ratio is an important modulator for the autonomic and subjective effects of instructed ventilatory patterns.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Exhalation / physiology*
  • Female
  • Heart Rate / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Inhalation / physiology*
  • Male
  • Relaxation / physiology
  • Relaxation / psychology*
  • Respiratory Rate / physiology*
  • Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia / physiology
  • Young Adult