Background: Sex differences exist in pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and outcome in aortic stenosis (AS). However, only limited information is available concerning sex differences in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The aim of the present study is a comprehensive meta-analysis of studies that investigate differences between men and women in outcome after TAVI.
Methods: We screened PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Inclusion criteria were: AS treated with all forms of TAVI, studies specifically targeting sex/gender differences, and at least 2 of the following outcome data: 30-day all-cause death, mortality during follow-up, major vascular complications, major bleeding, pacemaker, or stroke rate (<30 days). Studies were excluded if they considered female gender merely in subgroup analysis.
Results: We included 14 observational studies with a total of 7,973 patients (4,242 women, 3,731 men). At 30 days (12 studies, 3,044 women, 2,784 men), female sex was associated with a significantly lower mortality rate (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.78 [0.64, 0.96]). Of the 14 studies included for analysis, 12 provided data on mortality during follow-up that likewise show a survival advantage for women (OR 0.70 [0.59, 0.82]). Whereas the major vascular complication rate was greater in women (11 studies, 3,731 women, 3,342 men; OR 1.72 [1.41, 2.09]), major bleeding (8 studies, 2,124 women, 2,100 men; OR 1.13 [0.95, 1.33]) was not. Pacemaker and stroke rate were not significantly different between the groups.
Conclusion: In treatment with TAVI, there is evidence for a significantly greater overall survival benefit in women over men.
© 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.